Ethical Politic of Dutch Goverment (Hindia Belanda) during occuped Indonesia was changed
in early Indonesian social movement. Education, irigation and transmigration
are the main objectives of the policy.
Until Dutch goverment didn’t implemented as well, it was unwilling in
impelementation for Hindia Belanda citizen, finally, it makes disappointed and
indignant. Vorstenlanden (Yogyakarta & Surakarta), especially in
Mangkunegaran has autonom region to
organize education, Dutch government policies was prohibited or make
regulations to limit education, and the consequently only descandants and
nobles family was able to get education, because of this condition the
iliteracy rate is quate high in Mangkunegaran region.
person who knows bad situation is his Majesty Sri Mangkunegoro VII,
Mangkunegoro was quite phenomenal in Java History, he was the first iniatior
program who implemented education
program on his own region. Mangkunegaran is special region in Central of Java, lead by His
Majesty Mangkunegoro VII. Sri Mangkunegoro VII was inspired the education
program from ethical politic Dutch government. The main objective of his program
are to decreased iliteracy, improve social and economic as well. He whose birth
name was Raden Mas Soerjo Soeparto was born on 12th 1885. His father passed
away in 1896, exactly when R.M. Soerjo Soeparto turned 11th. His Majesty Sri
Mangkunegoro VII is modern ruler. He managed to improve the welfare of
Mangkunegaran region area through the plantation business (onderneming), especially sugar commodities, and finally the sugar
commodities was essentials in financing illiteracy program.
Implementation of Illiteracy Eradication Program 1939 – 1944
Majesty Sri Mangkunegoro VII formed a working committee
to implement iliteracy eradication program, program was
started on 15, August, 1939, launched by His Majesty Mangkunegara VII, the first program were takes
place around Mangkunegaran palace and Wonogiri region, the implementation of
Iliteracy Eradication was under government Mangkunegoro directly, and all
program founded by Mangkunegoro itself, at first, the
course around the Mangkunegaran palace was initially followed by 25 students,
in Wonogiri region was 100 students, and mostly participants are men, this
conditions, or in colonial period, woman prohibited to get education higher.
Considering result of history
research, it can be concluded that : (1) in colonial times, the education for
Indonesian people not considered as important, citizen was considered as a
subordinate class having no role in some are. Woman in
colonial time was only second class group under he man class, the woman position was considered as unequal to the man position.
In the term of education, woman only got education from informal or family
environment, they were only educated and taught how to become mother and wife
who was submitted to husband’s desire. (2) Mangunegoro VII attemped to promote
the education in his areas, including formal education on the form of school
building establishment such as village schools and Siswo Mangkunegaran school.
In addition , he also attempted to build school for organized the informal
education through youth organizations and the illiteracy eradication effort.
Event in promoting such education, Mangkunegoro VII also granted scholarship.