A India. Mrs. Jothi Priya Assistant Professor Department

      A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY ON THE AWARENESS OF PARACUSIA AMONG SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION 

Type of manuscript : Survey Article
Running title : Survey on Paracusia

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Tasleem Abitha S

Undergraduate student
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University 
Chennai, India.

Mrs. Jothi Priya

Assistant Professor 
Department of Physiology 
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University 
Chennai, India.

Corresponding Author 

Mrs. Jothi Priya
Department of Physiology 
Saveetha Dental College
Saveetha University
162, Poonamallee High Road
Chennai = 600077
Tamil Nadu, India. 

Faculty Email ID : [email protected]
Telephone           : +91 8939360922 

ABSTRACT 
 
AIM 
The aim is to create awareness about paracusia among South Indian population. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS
A group of people who experiences Paracusia were selected and examined with the questionnaire prepared. The information collected through the survey is analysed and presented in statistics. 

RESULTS
People who live in there own world of sorrows and depression often forget the real world, and fascinate things happening around as real or illusion. They get isolated themselves, they’ll start feeling more secured in there solitude, trying to off the real world literally and start living on there own imaginations. Yet when it comes as real life to the society around, that is not our kind of living to Hallucinate every time and forget the world around. And it is unhealthiest work to stay depressed every time. 

CONCLUSION 
All the data’s were analysed and presented in statistics. Hence, the person who consume drinks should follow this ‘less drugs (or) no alcohol’ method to minimise there hallucination. And for a normal person, less stress, healthier lifestyle, good friends around and self control can make them forget auditory hallucination is nothing but just a disease

KEYWORDS
Auditory Hallucination, Loneliness, Depression, Anxiety, Self-Monitoring, Stress, Day dreaming.

 

INTRODUCTION 

When you hear something which is not actually around, it can really throw you aback. Which in medical terms we call it as Paracusia, so called Auditory hallucination. Auditory hallucination is a psychiatric and mental disorder which sets in around the age of 21 1. In other words auditory hallucination is also experienced by the people who don’t have a psychiatric history 2.

Auditory hallucinations are of different types, which includes : Musical Ear syndrome and Head syndrome 3.

Musical Ear Syndrome : In this the patient hear one (or) more musical songs and tones continuously in his/her mind. This condition can also develop due to lesions in the brain stem, sleep disorders, epileptic activity and encephalitis 4.

Head Syndrome : In this the patient hears loud imaginary explosive noises like Gunshot, bomb exploding, etc (or) experiences a explosive feeling when falling asleep (or) waking up 567.

Paracusia is commonly experienced  by the people who undergoes depression, stress, mental illness and anxiety. Parkinson’s disease (or) Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, psychosis may trigger auditory hallucinations 8. These causes can also includes terminal illness like: 
AIDS, brain cancer, kidney (or) liver failure. Auditory hallucination also leads to Schizophrenia, which is also called Bipolar disorder 9. 

An interesting fact about Paracusia is, People who are addicted to caffeine are also said to experience Auditory Hallucination. A study conducted by the La Trobe University School of Psychological Sciences revealed that, Five cups of coffee per day could trigger the phenomenon of Paracusia 10. 
It is interesting that people who are born deaf and later go on to develop schizophrenia can also experiences hearing voices. 

The aim is to create awareness about paracusia among South Indian population. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

This was an online survey undertaken by using the link https://surveyplanet.com/
This survey was taken by about 114 participants, who are experiencing Paracusia in there everyday basis. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

QUESTIONS

RESPONSES

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

1. How many voices do you hear ?

One

More than one

Other

29

70

14

25.7%

61.9%

12.4%

2. Are the voices are identifiable?

Yes
 
No

70

42

62.5%

37.5%

3. Do you feel scared ?

Always

Sometimes

Never

26

64

22

23.2%

19.6%

57.1%

4. Tone of the voice ?

Soft

Loud

66

44

60%

40%

5. How often do you hear these voices ?

Everyday

Once in a week

Very rarely

Other

18

45

42

7

16.1%

40.2%

37.5%

6.3%

6. Are you taking any medicines?

Yes

No

38

75

66.4%

33.6%

7. Do you reply back to the voice?

Yes

No

41

70

36.9%

63.1%

8. When did you first  noticed this ?

Long back

Recently

Others

41

62

9

36.6%

55.7%

8%

9. Do you share this with anyone ?

Yes

No

Other

31

74

8

27.4%

65.5%

7.1%

10. Have you experienced visually anything along with the voice ?

Yes

No

Other

42

65

5

37.5%

58%

4.5%

11. Do you think that you have any special ability or power ?

Yes

No

54

59

47.8%

52.2%

12. Are people paying special attention to you ?

Yes

No

37

76

32.7%

67.3%

13. Do you wanted to hear the voice again or you wanted to
be free from the voice?

Yes, I enjoy talking to the voice

No, I wanted to get rid of the voice

43

66

32.4%

60.6%

14. In which situation you hear the voice often?

When I’m alone

When people are around

77

32

70.6%

29.4%

15. Gender of the voice ?

Male

Female

44

49

47.3%

52.7%

One hundred and fourteen participants who have experienced Paracusia were examined for the survey. Out of which 77 people experiences auditory hallucination when they are alone rather than with some group of people. And about 32 out of 114 participants experiences it, likely when they are surrounded by some people. From this it is noted that, Paracusia are probably adventured by individuals who undergo intense stress, sleep deprivation, drug use, and errors in development of proper psychological processes 11.
74 people out of 114 don’t share there Paracusia experiences with anyone. From this it is noted that, Paracusia are majorly undergone by loners who has less number of friends and a poor family circle (or) by people who carry a problem with there self – disclosure 12.

When we examine the situations how often people do hear talking voices, it is noted that, majority of the participants experiences Paracusia at least once in a week. And next to it, it is noted that many experiences it very rarely and some hear the voices everyday. And frequently people hallucinate in there negative moods connected with depression, anxiety, aggression, poor self-esteem, and physiological stress 1314.
So as a statistical analysis, it is recorded that condition for every individual varies as per there emotional state and state of mind (or) feelings. 

There are two divergent events noted in this survey, firstly it is the tone of the voice. Probably when it comes as any ethics related to physiological disorders, they are quite often not accepted by the general population. In it when it came as Paracusia, the rest than people who are undergoing auditory hallucination did not even took efforts to think what is it. Because according to the common people’s perspective, those are dishonest stories and unreal. Though they believe the disorder themselves, they imagine them to be terrific, scary, and fearsome. 
So when it is examined about the tone of the voices to the participants, 60% of the individuals selected the tone to be Soft, which is unlike everyone’s imagination. And the rest 40% of the participants selected the voice to be loud.

And the second surprising event noted is, about 62.5% of the people who are hearing  the voices are repeatedly listening to the voice which are identifiable by them. Which means that, the voices must be familiar and dear to the participants (or) it may be the voices of there close friends and family whom they miss due to isolation (or) they might be dead 15. About 64 participants out of 114, are experiencing Auditory hallucination in two different genre as they are scared of the voices and at the same time they also enjoy hearing it. And 26 participants are literally scared of the voices they hear and the other 22 prefer talking to the voices. From this it is noted that, majority are confused with there own feeling. From this it is noted that, majority are confused with there feeling themselves. Because it might be so new to them, they might felt scary, at the same time it might be new to them. So they wanted to hear the voice back again but they are also fearful as it is completely different from a normal human behaviour. 

When the current study is compared with the review of Kenneth Hugdahl, ” Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC “VOICE” project “, it is noted that, the past studies view on voices from the outside part of the brain coincides with the current study were the result of 50% were recorded to have 16.
  And when the current survey is compared with the study Mohammed El Haj’s,
“Hallucinations, loneliness, and social isolation in Alzheimer’s disease,” it is noted that about majority of the people experiences paracusia more because of social isolation and loneliness, which co relates about 75% of the current study 17 .

Viewed from the standpoint, people who experiences paracusia often they don’t reply back to the voices they listen to, but according to the study of Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos Santos, Tanit Ganz Sanchez, …, and Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia’s , “Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression,” it is proved to be different from the survey of mine 18.

CONCLUSION 

From the survey it is noted that, about 66 people out of 114 wanted to get rid of the voice as they might be scary (or) this may be new to them. And about 43 people enjoy hearing to the talking voices and they don’t wanted to stop hallucinating. 

Yet when it comes as real life to the society around, that is not our kind of living to Hallucinate every time and forget the world. And it practically won’t work to stay depressed every time 19 20. So the person has to start surrounding himself with trustworthy people and come up taking some preventive methods to stop the person from hallucinating. Apparently there are no permanent cure for this disorder, but proceeding with steps to prevent auditory hallucination are one of the main tool for a happier living 21. 

Hence, the person who consume drinks should follow this ‘less drugs (or) no alcohol’ method to minimise there hallucination. And for a normal person, less stress, healthier lifestyle, good friends around and self control can make them forget auditory hallucination is nothing but just a disease. 

REFERENCE 

1. Yuhas, Daisy. “Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained A challenge”. Scientific American Mind (March 2013). Retrieved 2 March 2013.
2. Thompson, Andrea (September 15, 2006). “Hearing Voices: Some People Like It”. LiveScience.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2006. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
3. Aleman A, Larøi F (2008). Hallucinations: The Science of Idiosyncratic Perception. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC. CrossRef
4. Altman H, Collins M, Mundy P (1997). Subclinical hallucinations and delusions in nonpsychotic adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 413–420. CrossRef
5. Sharpless, Brian A. (December 2014). “Exploding head syndrome”. Sleep Medicine Reviews.
6. Frese, A.; Summ, O.; Evers, S. (6 June 2014). “Exploding head syndrome: Six new cases and review of the literature”. Cephalalgia. 34 (10): 823–827.
7. Badcock JC, Waters FAV, Maybery MT, Michie PT (2005). Auditory hallucinations: failure to inhibit irrelevant memories. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10, 125–136. CrossRef
8. ^ WILSON, R.; GILLEY, D.; BENNETT, D; BECKETT, L.; EVANS, D. (2000). “Hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery. (2): 172–177.
9. SHERGILL, SUKHWINDER S.; Nenadic, I; Volz, HP; Büchel, C; Sauer, H (2004). “Neuroanatomy of ‘Hearing Voices’: A Frontotemporal Brain Structural Abnormality Associated with Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia”. Cerebral Cortex. 
10. Barkus E, Stirling J, Hopkins R, McKie S, Lewis S (2007). Cognitive and neural processes in non-clinical auditory hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry 191, s76–s81. CrossRef 
11. Peplau, L.A.; Perlman, D. (1982). “Perspectives on loneliness”. In Peplau, Letitia Anne; Perlman, Daniel. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 1–18. ISBN 978-0-471-08028-2.
12. Cacioppo, John; Patrick, William, Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, New York : W.W. Norton & Co., 2008. Science of Loneliness.com Archived 1 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
13. Niedenthal, P.M.; Setterlund, M.B. (1994). “Emotional congruence in perception”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 20 (4): 401–411. doi:10.1177/0146167294204007.
14. Delgado, P (2000). “Depression: the case for a monoamine deficiency”. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.
15. Bentall RP, Slade P (1985 a). Reality testing and auditory hallucinations: a signal detection analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 24, 159–169. CrossRef
16. Hugdahl K. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC “VOICE” project. World Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;5(2):193-209. doi:10.5498/wjp.v5.i2.193.
         17.  Mohamad El Haj, Stéphane Raffard, Luciano Fasotti, Philippe Allain. (2017) Destination memory in social interaction: better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?. Memory 0:0, pages 1-9. 

        18. Santos RMR dos, Sanchez TG, Bento RF, Lucia MCS de. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology. 2012;16(3):322-327. doi:10.7162/S1809-97772012000300004.

   19. HAYASHI, NAOKI md, phd; IGARASHI, YOSHITO md; SUDA, KIYOKO md; NAKAGAWA, SEISHU md: Auditory hallucination coping techniques and their relationship to psychotic symptomatology Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 61″ 2007: 640–645
20. Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Murray, RM; McGuire, PK (1998). “Auditory hallucinations: a review of psychological treatments”. Schizophrenia Research. 32 (3): 137–150.
21. Lewis, Michael. “Self-Conscious emotions”. In Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Lewis, Michael; Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M. Handbook of Emotions (Fourth ed.). Guilford Publications. p. 793. ISBN 9781462525362. Retrieved 1 April 2017