Conclusion motors and batteries—once thought of as dull,

Conclusion

     In summary,
electric cars might be a great car, but everything still has its benefits and
drawbacks. Starting with its benefits. Firstly, (Emissions) electric cars are
completely green cars: sometimes they’re even referred to as ZEVs (zero-emission vehicles)—and the
official fueleconomy.gov website actually quotes zero grams of CO2 emissions
per mile for most electric cars. Now while it’s true that the car itself makes no pollution and
produces no CO2 emissions in the place where you drive it, it’s also misleading: unless
electricity comes from a wind turbine or
a solar panel,
some emissions are still produced in the process of electricity generation in a
distant power plant somewhere.
Even with that qualification, electric cars are no worse than the greenest fossil fueled cars—and that comparison will only get
more favorable as electricity generation becomes greener; an electric car
powered by green electricity is going to win on emissions by a very long way.
Secondly, electric cars are considerably more efficient than gasoline
cars because electric motors are inherently more efficient (about 80 percent)
than internal combustion engines (a mere 30 percent for the engine alone, much
less for an entire gas-powered vehicle), which waste a high proportion of the
fuel they burn as useless heat. It is not just the engine that makes an
electric car more efficient. With regenerative brakes, we
are not throwing energy away every time we stop and stop: the car’s electric
motor becomes a generator so that
when the brakes are engaged, the car slows down as your kinetic energy turns to
electricity that recharges the battery. Thirdly, Performance even in
performance, electric cars sometimes outclass gasoline ones. Electric motors
can produce high torque even at low speeds, which means they can accelerate
more quickly than gasoline cars that don’t produce their peak torque until they
reach relatively high engine speeds. They’re also quieter and smoother. As
Tesla have demonstrated, there’s no reason whatsoever why electric motors and
batteries—once thought of as dull, worthy, and rather plodding— can’t power
racy, exciting sports cars. A Tesla Model S can accelerate from 0–60mph
(100km/h) in just 3.9 seconds, comparable to a high-performance
gasoline-powered BMW M5 (and in at least one test, by Automobile magazine,
rather better). Fourthly, Maintenance is also less of a chore, because electric
cars are generally simpler than gasoline ones. According to a 2012 report by
the Institute of Automobile Economics, electric vehicles cost about a third
less to maintain than equivalent gas or diesel cars. Why? An electric motor is
an inherently simpler bit of kit than a gasoline engine with far fewer moving
parts to wear out; if it uses no transmission or gearbox, which makes the
entire car simpler still. Even the brakes last longer, since
regenerative braking means we need to use the conventional (frictional) brake
pads much less than in an ordinary car. On the other hand, some of the
technology used in electric cars is relatively untested, which means it could
be more prone to early failure even if it is, paradoxically, simpler and
theoretically more reliable in the long run. Lastly, about the drawbacks.
First, Batteries Electric motors and batteries are the two main points of
difference between conventional and electric cars. Where motors are well
understood and highly reliable, giant battery packs remain the Achilles heel of
electric cars. Despite its environmental and economic drawbacks, kilo for kilo,
a tank of gasoline can carry far more energy than a bunch of batteries and that
will remain the case for the foreseeable future. We can completely refuel a
gas-powered car in a couple of minutes and drive several hundred kilometers on
the energy we have pumped in without stopping. However, electric cars can take
anything from half-an-hour to a whole night to recharge (“fill up”)
and, even then, probably will not get us further than a couple of hundred kilometers
before the batteries run out. Where a gas tank is a relatively compact thing
that sits neatly out of sight, the batteries in any electric car are expensive.
Second, electricity is also expensive. Third, short driving range and speed
plus battery replacement from time to time. 

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