Factors A pilot questionnaire is considered the most

Factors Affecting Questionnaire
Respondents Opinions 


The questionnaire/survey results depend
essentially on the respondent’s opinions. However,
there are many factors that can
the opinion given by the expert, such as:

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Subjective Estimation of KPI’s and its priorities

Anchoring: This happens when the respondent starts with a preliminary evaluation which
is usually modified while filling the
questionnaire.Linguistic Imprecision: If the same word
or expression
can be interpreted
differently by the respondents which will lead to a lack of unification in
the point of view from which
the question is answered. In test the questionnaires sample with
the experts, one of the main targets to eliminate or reduce this element. It
was notice this issue from using the expression KPI’s with different definition
such as to present the project productivity. 

factors affecting opinions

This difference arises between a respondent answers the
survey independently and another who answers it collectively (among a group of
other respondents). It can be named also, group affect. To minimize this
effect, the questionnaire sent to small number of respondents in every company
and id in different departments or projects.Bias:
If the survey is solved collectively, then, respondents may
be affected by their seniors or managers in taking the decision. The respondent
think that he misses the required experience to answer.Personality:
The personality of the survey’s solver may affect his/her
answers to the survey.  Accordingly, and because of these
limitations, it is preferred for each respondent to answer the survey
individually to get the full point of view and vision without being affected by
another person in his/her surroundings and finally use his experience as the
questionnaire also measure the level of experience with the respondent ago. 

Test the questionnaires


It is recommended to conduct a pilot study of a
questionnaire prior to its full deployment (Naoum, 2007). A pilot questionnaire
is considered the most beneficial tool to ensure that a questionnaire is clear
and understood by all respondents, as well as to identify ambiguities in the
meaning of questions, how long recipients take to complete it, and to eliminate
any questions that do not yield usable data (Rattray & Jones, 2007).
Therefore, during development of the questionnaire, it was essential that the
questionnaire be tested by sample of respondents. The participation of
respondents provided an opportunity to evaluate the reliability and validity of
the questionnaire format.


 The pilot study
was carried out amongst PPP and construction professionals. Questionnaire
number 1 was sent to five experts in PPP projects. Questionnaire number 2 was
sent to six experts in construction management. Individual meetings were hold
with all of them to measure the clarity and all other targets from the pilot
studies. The final copy of the questionnaire issued after consider all the
finding of pilot study.


The questionnaire respondents should have valuable
knowledge in construction performance management, PPP projects and methods of
procurement of the projects. This level of experience is not famous and the
sample should be limited and conditioned to have these requirements. A list by
about 100 persons from more than 18 organizations satisfy such requirements was
the sample size for the first questionnaire. The second questionnaire, was more
popular so, sample size based on statistical methods was calculated.