Genetically Introduction. 4 Purpose. 4 Discussion of Findings.

Genetically Modified Organisms

Savannah A. Cabral

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Business Writing 222

Instructor: Dr. Eric Furlong

December 17, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents
Executive
Summary. 3
Introduction. 4
Purpose. 4
Discussion
of Findings. 4
Technical
Aspect of Genetically Modified Organisms. 5
What are
GMOS?. 5
Benefits of
Genetically Modified Foods. 6
Quality. 6
Nutrition.. 7
Environmental
Impacts. 7
Major Concerns. 7
            Soil
Salinity………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
Conclusion. 8
References. 9
 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

Over the last
thirty years, genetically modified organisms have been around to help shape the
world today. From creating new traits or fixing old ones, genetic modification
has come far in recent years with innovative technologies being made. Many of
these genetically modified organisms can survive harsh weather conditions as
well as last longer and keep pests away. The quality of the foods being
modified has also increased drastically. The nutritional value of certain foods
can also be modified to create a super food that can help malnourished people
across the planet. Genetically modified organisms allow scientists to provide
solutions to environmental concerns and strive to end world hunger.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genetically Modified
Organisms

 

Introduction

All through
history, mankind has endeavored to make different things less demanding for
themselves by controlling their general surroundings. There is still no difference
in today’s world. Genetically modified organisms have taken over the food, health,
and environment within the last thirty years. Many people have grown concerned with
the way we use and create genetically engineered crops. Without a little science,
hereditary qualities, and history it can be a frightening innovation but it is apparent
that GMOs create headway in agriculture.

 

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide general information
about what genetically modified organisms are, how they are created, how they benefit
us, and some concerns about the environment.

Discussion of Findings

 

Technical Aspect of Genetically Modified Organisms

What are GMOS? GMOs are genetically
modified organisms such as a plants or animals in which their genetic makeup
has been altered to create a more suitable organism. Therefore creating
unnatural animal, plant, virus, and bacteria genes that may cause concern for
some. 

How are they created? There are several ways to
create a genetically modified organism (GMO). One of the most common and
preferred ways to create a GMO is through genetic engineering (GE). Genetic
engineering or the use of modern biotechnology alters an organism’s genes by
transferring specifically chosen traits from one organism to another.  The process of successfully completing the
transfer of DNA takes three important steps that each vary in the amount of
time it takes for them to be completed. The first step is to identify the trait
or gene you wish to use and then extract it. During this step, the gene/trait
is extracted from an organism and then cloned thousands of times in order to be
successfully added into new cells. The next step is designing the gene to be
effective once inside a different organism. This is done by reshaping the three
regions in a gene which are the promoter region, the coding region, and the
terminating sequence (Gene Regions 2001). The promoter region is quite like a
light switch that turns the gene “on” and “off”. It also determines the amount
of times a specific protein will be produced. The coding region is the second
region which contains the coded information that designates the sequence of the
protein to be made. The last part is the terminating sequence which is
typically left untouched. The main purpose for it is to send signals that the
gene ends there so the entire chromosome would not be read. Once the gene has
been designed and successfully infused into an organism’s genome the modified
organism must then grow and duplicate its newly engineered gene. After these
steps are done successfully a new genetically modified organism is created.

Benefits of Genetically Modified Foods

Quality. With the increase of
population around the world, scientists are trying to develop new ways to help
stop the problem of world hunger. One way they helped accomplish a small part
of their goal is by altering the genes of certain foods for them to last
longer. For example, when comparing a normal product such as a tomato to a
genetically modified one; you can see how the quality of the tomato with the
enhanced genes last longer than the normal one (Figure 1). Scientists can also
make these plants grow in some of the world’s worst conditions as well as use
less water than the original plants. This creates sustainability and can
potentially help societies worldwide in the fight
against hunger.

                             (Figure 1).

Nutrition. The nutritional value of
genetically modified foods can be changed by genetically enhancing certain
traits to create a super food as well as eliminate certain types of common food
allergens allowing more people to be able consume them.

Environmental Impacts

Major Concerns. There are some major
concerns when it comes to GMOs and the environment. Some of the concerns
include how new genes or traits effect the stability of an environment when the
gene unintentionally gets introduced into the ecosystem. This means that this
new gene can potentially harm wildlife such as insects that are not considered
pests. Although this can happen scientists are researching and finding new ways
to reduce the risk of unintentionally having these genetically engineered genes
from harming the ecosystem.

Soil Salinity. Soil salinity refers to the
amount of salt in the soil. This is a major concern for agriculture around the
world because many plants and crops cannot tolerate excessive amounts in the
soil making it difficult to plant anything there. This reduces the number of
crops we can grow in the future. Decreasing the soil productivity in a world where
we are expected to be more productive with the diminishing of agricultural land
will not continue to keep up for the increasing world population. Scientists
are looking towards alternatives to help modify a salt tolerant gene to help
create crops that can continue to flourish in this harsh environment. Although
they have not perfected it yet, we could see it happening in the near future
with the increase in more advanced technologies.

 

 

 

Conclusion

There are many concerns related to the use and consumption
of genetically engineered organisms and foods. They hold the possibility to
greatly increase our foods overall quality, quantity, and nutritional value. It
is not an easy task to create a genetically modified organism and takes
multiple attempts to get a certain gene to work. The process can take years to
perfect and it is uncertain what the future holds for them. The major concerns
that genetically enhanced crops bring to the environment makes humans skeptical
about them. These concerns are genuine and need to be looked into further
detail before mass producing crops worldwide. Scientists are always coming up
with new ways to lower the risks that GMOs bring about.

 

 

References

Gene Regions. (2001). Retrieved December
17, 2017, from http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/education/gene.htm

GMO Facts. (2015). Retrieved December
17, 2017, from https://www.nongmoproject.org/gmo-facts/

How to Make a GMO. (2015, August 10).
Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2015/how-to-make-a-gmo/

Institute, P. B. (2010, November 9). Dig
Deeper. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://rodaleinstitute.org/gmos-and-sustainable-agriculture/

Biggler, F., Sanvido, O., & Romeis,
J. (2008). Can genetically modified
plants play a role in sustainable crop protection?PDF. Zürich, Switzerland: Agroscope
Research Station ART .

GMOs and the environment. (2010).
Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x9602e/x9602e07.htm

Module 1: Basic Biotechnology. (n.d.).
Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=991751218&topicorder=3&maxto=9&minto=1

2012, May 08). Statement on Benefits and
Risks of Genetically Modified Foods for Human Health and Nutrition ·
International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://www.iuns.org/2012/05/statement-on-benefits-and-risks-of-genetically-modified-foods-for-human-health-and-nutrition/

Natural Resources Conservation Service.
(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/az/soils/?cid=nrcs144p2_065177

Q&A: genetically modified food.
(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2017, from
http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-technology/faq-genetically-modified-food/en/