ICC (International Criminal Court) The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal. The ICC has the authority to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Significance:The US wanted for the ICC to wither and collapse by giving no financial support, no collaboration and no negotiation as they felt the ICC was a threat to the US sovereignty.However the US was unable to stop countries from signing in on the new international court.In 2002, the International Criminal Court was established.68 countries signed onto the Rome Statute and became member states.3 ways a case can get to the ICC:A member country can refer a case (e.g. Uganda).Thousands were killed and 1.6 million people were displaced in Uganda.The prosecutor can open an investigation on his own (e.g. Columbia).Thousands killed and 1 million individuals were displaced.The UN Security Council can make a referral to the court (e.g. Darfur).290,000 dead and 1 million people forced into refugee camps.The courtroom in the international court can be seen as a way for people to learn how to work together to protect people all around the world. Tokyo TrialsThe Tokyo Trial occured after World War 2, it was a trial regarding the atrocities by the Japanese in Nanjing, China. The Tokyo Trial was established to essentially prosecute the most senior leaders of Japanese Imperial Government for crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace that were committed during World War 2. Significance:One of the oldest rules of war states that when a combat surrenders, they wave a white flag, they put their hands up or they put their weapons down.This usually indicates that they are captives and will end the conflict. This is the situation that occured in Nanjing, China. From December 1937 to January 1938, the Japanese Imperial Army occupied the Chinese capital city of Nanjing and captured thousands of civilians and soldiers who surrendered.According to the laws of war, it is the duty of the capturers to treat captured soldiers and civilian population humanely. The reason for this being that the governments are at war, not the civilians.The civilians should be treated for, not punished. However, those rules were not followed in Nanjing. Instead, Japanese soldiers acted extremely cruel towards their captives and created a huge atrocity.No one was spared from violence and violations. Women, children, the elderly and soldiers all experienced the terrible actions of the Japanese soldiers. Many were raped, tortured and killed. The structure of the Tokyo Trial was similar to the Nuremberg Trial in Germany. However, unlike the trial of Nazi war criminals that took place in Nuremberg, Germany, prosecutors in the Tokyo Trial had less evidence that directly linked particular defendants with specific crimes.This would be because the Japanese commander sent orders to destroy any evidence of an atrocity.Nuremberg TrialsThe Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals held by Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War 2. The trials were most significant for the prosecution of important members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. Significance: The Nuremberg Trials were held for the purpose of bring Nazi war criminals to justice.A series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949.Nuremberg Trials left a permanent legacy.On November 20 marks the 65th anniversary of the start of the Nuremberg Trials, in which 22 important leaders of Nazi Germany were brought to justice by the International Military Tribunal. The tribunal was designed to document crimes committed in the course of the most massive conflict in the world. In October 1945, the International Military Tribunal formally indicted the Nuremberg defendants on four counts: Crimes against peaceWar crimesCrimes against humanityConspiracy to commit these crimesThe Nuremberg Trial and the Tokyo War Crimes Trials following World War 2, the Allied governments established the first International Criminal Tribunals to prosecute high-level political officials and military authorities for war crimes and other wartime atrocities. Fair UseFair use only applies absolutely on a case-by-case basis. It allows exceptions to be able to reproduce part of a work, for purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. The right to use portions of copyrighted materials without permission for purposes of educations, commentary and etc. Significance:Students often use fair use to quote previous research in their papers and other publications. Fair use helps authors build on the knowledge in previous research.News reports often use fair use when they show previously created context in order to create historical context for breaking news or other events that are happening right now. Documentary filmmakers may rely on fair use when including copyrighted materials in their work.Fair use helps us better understand the events of our world as they evolve around us.Commentary or criticism often use fair use.Without fair use, an author or creator would need to ask permission from the copyright holders before using copyrighted content in the process of criticism, like a book, or music review.Fair use provides the opportunity for freedom of expression when commenting or criticizing others’ work. IP (Intellectual Property)Intellectual property (IP) is a group of property that includes untouchable creation of the human mind. IP is protected in law, such as copyright, patent, and trademarks. It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Significance:Intellectual property rights are valuable advantages for your business, without protection of ideas, businesses and individuals would not reap the full benefits of their inventions and would focus less on research and development.Trademark is another way of referring to brands.Trademarks are a big influence on the decisions of a consumer’s purchase.It is importance for business people to have an understanding of why trademarks are important assets and help grow their business.Intellectual property law deals with protecting the rights of those who create original works.The purpose of intellectual property laws are to encourage new technologies, artistic expressions and inventions while promoting economic growth. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of the wide variety of intellectual goods. The law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create.