Introduction: there are two main aspects, one is

Introduction:

IOMT (Internet of Medical Things) or healthcare IoT:

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Healthcare has numerous applications fall under the internet of
things, from remote monitoring to smart sensors and medical device integration.
It has the potential to not only keep patients safe and healthy, but to improve
how physicians deliver care as well. Healthcare IoT can also boost patient
engagement and satisfaction by allowing patients to spend more time interacting
with their doctors.

Some examples:

1-
Medical apparatus and devices like wheelchairs, scales, defibrillators,
nebulizers, pumps or monitoring equipment can be tagged with sensors and
located easily with IoT. Apart from real time location services, there are IoT
devices that help in environmental monitoring as well (checking the
refrigerator temperature, for example).

2- With
the intervention of Internet of Things, clinicians can predict the arrival of
patients who are recuperating in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). They can
also monitor the status of patients in real time.

3- Hand
hygiene monitoring systems which measure the degree of cleanliness in a
healthcare worker.

4-
Hospitals can provide good care to patients at affordable rates. IoT aims to
provide better patient journey by:

ï    Room lighting through personal control

ï    Communicate to family and friends through email services

ï    Immediate attention to patient needs

IoT Architecture and Structure:

For the
implementation of  IoT to be undertaken
successfully in the healthcare industry, devices need to be structured around
specific network architecture to ensure that every piece of technology is
introduced and maintained to a high standard, which should theoretically lead
to zero breakdowns in communication between the network and devices. Regarding
IoT structure, there are two main aspects, one is device management. Normally
falls under the remit of a member of the Security and IT team, who are
responsible of ensuring security protocols are followed during the introduction
process of new devices and maintained during their lifespan. The second aspect
is infrastructure management. Frequently overlapping with device management
processes, how effective they are implemented is depending on the speed in
which devices are connected. Owing to their computational limits reducing their
speed and memory, numerous IoT devices are modified, with a boosted connection
to the Cloud to increase their productivity.

Detailed overview of the Technology:

The
proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the healthcare market, which
comprises systems and software, medical devices, and services, has had a
significant impact on the overall healthcare sector and been immensely
beneficial in remote clinical monitoring, chronic disease management,
preventive care, assisted living, and personal fitness monitoring. Termed as a
true game-changer for the healthcare industry, the Internet of Things has
transformed the sector by lowering costs, improving efficiency, and bringing
the focus back to quality patient care.

From
clinicians that need to identify patients, collect specimens, administer
medication and monitor vital signs to pharmacists that need an accurate
inventory count, with the Internet of Things, healthcare organizations can
benefit from next level Intelligence.

I. Operational Efficiency

There are many challenges
that faced the industry of healthcare from mostly every aspect of operation.
From managing equipment, inventory and time to tracking patients, the level of
accountability is high. A good example is medical inventories. Many hospitals
overstock certain inventories to prevent “running out” during an emergency.

 

Implementing
solutions such as RFID and mobile scanners connected with cloud technology,
organizations can gain visibility into these assets, providing real-time
information to the people and transactions that require them ensuring hospitals
have what they need, where they need it, when they need it.

II. Improved Patient Care

In order
to provide the best quality patient care, clinicians and staff need access to
the right equipment at the right time. Moreover, hospital staff need to better
allocate their time to patient care rather than manual documentation, and
tracking down the right supplies. With mobile devices, wearable technologies
and comprehensive electronic medical records stored on these devices,
clinicians can spend less time doing needless testing or asking redundant
questions, eliminating errors, and have more time to focus on the patient’s
current problem.

With IoT
solutions, healthcare organizations can now gain access to the information they
need in real-time to improve patient experiences and outcomes. In addition, IoT
also makes it easier to integrate data from consumer devices such as fitness
band into hospital systems, which help organizations gather more data and
deliver better care.

III. Leadership and Innovation

For
healthcare organizations to stay ahead of the curve, rather than always
fighting to catch up, implementing solutions that capture and analyze their
data enables them to find common patterns and anticipate what’s coming.

With IoT
technologies maturing at a rapid rate, the healthcare industry stands to
benefit from this intelligence to improve performance and innovation.

When it’s
said and done, by spending less time manually managing processes and tracking
down resources, healthcare professionals can spend more time dedicated to
patient care and building strategies that improve how they operate.

Algorithms/protocols used:

Today,
algorithms are everywhere and much more important absolutely in Healthcare
Technology. The algorithms that used: 

Fourier
Transform: enhancing our Senses.

The
flourier transform has been dubbed one of most important algorithms of our
time. It’s a mathematical technique for breaking complex signals into basic
components. It allows technicians, for example, to see voltage fluctuations in
a wire connecting a microphone to a loud speaker. Because it reduces a signal
to a short list of numbers, it’s also used to squeeze audio and image files
into portable packages (MP3’s and JPEG’s). Without it, medical imaging wouldn’t
exist. Magnetic resonance and ultrasound machines couldn’t turn raw data into
pictures that enable doctors to see inside our bodies to diagnose and treat
bleeds and broken bones, tears, tumors and more.

RSA: The Encryption Algorithm

This algorithm allows for the secure transmission of digital
data. It was one of the first practicable encryption algorithms. The function
of this algorithm to secure sharing of electronic health records and be locked
in filing cabinets, mailed and faxed.

 

MUMPS: Health Care’s Operating System

 It’s a computer programming language made for the health care
industry, and still used today by many hospitals and banks. It was one of the
first languages to enable computers to run multiple programs simultaneously.
Today it powers the entire Veterans Health Administration’s clinical records
management system and Epic, America’ largest electronic health record software
company.

Probabilistic Data Matching: The Clinician-Scientist’s best
friend

Probabilistic algorithms look for diverse bits of information in
medical records, and then rank them according to their possibility of belonging
to patient. Used to retrieve clinical data and assist in research. The
probabilistic algorithm, Niave Bayes Classifier, for example, is used to update
the probability estimate or provide additional evidence for a research
hypothesis. Paired with genetic sequencing it allows biologists to better
understand the evolutionary relationships among species or populations to trace
the phylogenetic relationships within major branches of Darwin’s tree of life.

 

 

BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

High-throughout sequencing has ushered in a new age of genetic
discovery, making it possible to cheaply and quickly find mutations among the 3
billion base pairs of the human genome. Identifying mutations is just the first
step, though. It falls to biologists, aided by computer algorithms, to make
sense of the growing body of data, to work out which genes and proteins confer disease
and how. Chief among those algorithms is the search tool. BLAST, a search
algorithm, accomplishes this by analyzing gene & comparing protein
sequences to a library or database of sequences and relevant scientific papers.
Publications about BLAST hold the 12th and 14th spots in a list of the 100
top-cited science papers of all time, according to the journal, Nature. BLAST
is being surpassed, though, by Clustal, a similar program for aligning multiple
sequences at once, according to Nature.

NEIGHBOR-JOINING: Phylogenetics

A study illustrated “neighbor-joining” algorithm, when paired with
genetic sequencing, allows biologists to better understand the evolutionary
relationships among species or populations to trace the phylogenetic
relationships within major branches of the tree of life. Phylogenetic trees are
used in drug development to, for example, identify closely related, naturally
occurring chemical compounds suspected to have medicinal value. Phylogenetic
trees of pathogens help scientists understand the adaptive evolution of
bacteria, viruses and parasites how they infect hosts, subvert immune systems
and resist treatment. No. 20 on Nature’s list of top-cited science papers.

Google Search: Page Ranking

We do a lot of Internet searches every day using Google or
Yahoo. Whatever the search engine, it’s a complex algorithm known as “page
rank” that first, source the Internet for pages that have the key word you
ender and then rank them based on factors, such as their location or their
frequency of use. “Googling” answers our burning questions, or at least gives us
a start. But has it helped or hurt health care? It’s certainly democratized it
and put more information within easy reach of patients.

 

 

 

 

 

 

How
it works to provide the expected service.

 

Recently, the healthcare can be categorized in multiple ways based on the perspective of the technology,
functionality and the benefits. There is a trend happening with the convergence
of consumer devices and medical devices. 
Most recent smartphones are being launched with health sensors in the
accessories like wrist gear. This enables the Health, which refers to the use
of mobile and wireless technologies in the practice of medicine and the
monitoring of public health. This reduces medical errors based on continual
monitoring practices. IoT applications in healthcare can be grouped in to
following categories based on the functionality.

ï    Tracking of objects
and people.

ï    Identification and
authentication

ï    Automatic data collection and sensing

Health trends can be analyzed with respect to the application
areas in medical practice. Some of the applications areas are listed below
along with the usage of IoT concept and their benefits.

1-
Wireless patient monitoring: This application is for remote surveillance of patient vital
functions through the use of internally and externally located patient devices.
As opposed to discrete interactions, the provision of healthcare is moving to a
model where information is being transmitted and shared in real time between
individuals and caregivers. This is especially relevant for chronic disease
management such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, asthma.

2-
Mobile system access: This application is
based on the mobile technologies that enable remote/virtual access to current
clinical systems (electronic health records EHRs, picture archiving and
communication systems PACS, etc.). All the medical system can be automated
with easy to use mobile app interface. This application of technology in
healthcare is referred as e-Health. If the mobile is used as monitoring and
delivery of healthcare, the application area is termed as m-Health. Examples:
Websites, portals, mobile apps.

3-
Medical devices: This application is used to capture and track key care compliance
and disease management data.  Mainly
these are used as fitness solutions for tracking of patient activities and
smart diagnostic devices used for capturing the data from the sensors for
further analysis by doctor. Google glass is also under research for possible
medical devices as this can used to perform assisted surgeries and recording,
etc.

 

 

 

Its
applications in real-life :

•Medication Dispensing
Device by Philips: remind patients of their doses; good for elderly patients.

•Niox Mino by
Aerocrine: for routine measurements of Intric Oxide in a patient’s breath.

•UroSense by Future
Path Medical: for catheterized
patients to check their core body temperature and urine output.

•GPS SmartSole:
this is a shoe-tracking wearable device for dementia patients who have the
habit of forgetting things.

IoT Healthcare Security:

The IoT
is growing rapidly. In the coming years, the medical sector is expected to witness the widespread
adoption of the IoT and flourish through new eHealth IoT devices and
applications, they are expected to deal with vital private information such as
personal healthcare data. Moreover, such smart devices may be connected to
global information networks for their access anytime, anywhere. thus, the IoT
healthcare domain may be a target of attackers. To facilitate the full adoption
of the IoT in the healthcare domain, it is critical to identify and analyze
distinct features of IoT security and privacy, including security requirements,
vulnerabilities, threat models, and countermeasures, from the healthcare
perspective.

Security
requirements for IoT-based healthcare solutions are similar to those in standard
communications scenarios. Therefore, to achieve secure services, there is a
need to focus on the following security requirements.

1)
Confidentiality

Confidentiality
ensures the inaccessibility of medical information for unauthorized users. In addition, confidential
messages resist revealing their content to eavesdroppers.

2)
Integrity

Integrity
ensures that no adversary can alter the received medical data in transition.
Furthermore, the integrity of stored data and content should not be
compromised.

3) Authentication

Authentication
ensures the identity of the communicated peer in IoT health device.

4)
Availability

Availability
ensures the survivability of IoT healthcare services (either local or
global/cloud services) to authorized parties when needed even under
denial-of-service attacks.

5)
Data Freshness

Data
freshness includes data freshness and key freshness. Because each IoT
healthcare network provides some time-varying measurements, there is a need to
ensure that each message is fresh. Data freshness basically implies that each
data set is recent and ensures that no adversary replays old messages.

6)
Non-Repudiation

Non-repudiation
indicates that a node cannot deny sending a message sent earlier.

The strengths of IoT in healthcare:

1. Decreased Costs: When healthcare providers take advantage of the connectivity of
the healthcare solutions, patient monitoring can be done on a real time basis,
thus significantly cutting down on unnecessary visits by doctors. In
particular, home care facilities that are advanced are guaranteed to cut down
on hospital stays and re-admissions.

2.Improved Outcomes of Treatment: Connectivity of health care solutions through cloud computing or
other virtual infrastructure gives caregivers the ability to access real time information
that enables them to make informed decisions as well as offer treatment that is
evidence based. This ensures health care provision is timely and treatment
outcomes are improved.

3.Improved Disease Management: If patients have been
monitored on a continuous basis and health care providers are able to access
real-time data, diseases are treated before they get out of control.

4.Reduced Errors: Accurate collection of data, automated workflows combined with
data driven decisions are an excellent way of cutting down on waste, reducing
system costs and most importantly minimizing on errors.

5.Enhanced Patient Experience: The connectivity of
the health care system through the internet of things, places emphasis on the
needs of the patient. That is, proactive treatments, improved accuracy when it
comes to diagnosis, timely intervention by physicians and enhanced treatment
outcomes result in accountable care that is highly trusted among patients.

 

 

 

 

The weaknesses of IoT in healthcare:

Although
the Internet of Things is transformational in the health care sector, it also
presents a number of challenges given that health data is sensitive. As such,
when shared inappropriately, health information may damage reputations or
destroy careers amongst other things.

Security
of data is also another risk factor that is likely to increase with an increase
in the level of data being shared. The volume of data is bound to increase
significantly hence the need to shield this information from cyber attacks.

What’s next for IoT technology in the health sector?

Internet
of Things technology holds the potential to revolutionize the healthcare
industry, but not before overcoming barriers of security and data ownership.

¬ telepresence prove a
big win for remote healthcare – whether that’s before or after a visit to the
doctor’s office or the hospital. Health tech’s biggest advocates believe
efficient remote health could dramatically cut down on the necessity for
routine reviews and checkups. Patients would also be allowed to leave hospitals
and clinics earlier, as professionals are enabled to monitor them from home
rather than keeping them in hospitals for observation.

¬ Ideally, the
objective data that could be taken from a network of IoT devices will also be
able to significantly lower margins of error. And in the predictive realm, it
could, for example, be able to detect the onset of a wide range of health
issues, from high blood pressure to early signs of delirium. Emergency
admissions could then, in theory, be reduced – with proactive health systems in
place to address the problems before they become more serious or irreversible.

¬ Some businesses want
to make it possible to attend a full healthcare appointment from the comfort of
your home, so health specialists from around the world can provide a
consultation or even diagnosis from hundreds of miles away.

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:

As
discussed in this report, all the physical objects will work seamlessly with
machineto-machine and human-to-machine interfaces. This level of interconnection
is a boon for the healthcare, where health influencing factors both internal
& external to the human body can be analyzed based on the model. These
factors along with the genomic inputs shall make it possible to predict the
health trends and allergies of the person; thereby the technology can provide
customized recommendations on suitable physical activities, diets, etc. This
mobile doctor buddy apps are not meant to be the replacement for experience of
the doctors. They should work collaboratively with the doctor. In this approach
of complementing the doctor with the technology based inputs, the new trends in
IoT has the capability to transform the way the primary healthcare is delivered
to the patients.

Finally,
healthcare institutions should enter into agreements with vendors that require
the connected devices to be updated with improved security over time and that
the updates are tested and verified before being put into use. Given the nature
of healthcare data and potential legal liability for resulting data breaches,
the “Internet of Things” at healthcare institutions and the contracts
that cover them need to constitute a “Security of Things.”