Lessons in the case of lack of information

Lessons for Disaster Management – The World Trade Center
Attacks

Introduction

After the events of September 11,
2001, the relevant agencies in the United States of America took lessons
learned from disaster management in the collapse of the World Trade Center
towers. Since the officials were taken away, and the surprise was startling,
they studied what had been done to improve disaster management in a modern
scientific way. This is done after reviewing the procedures that have been
carried out in all areas related to the management of this disaster, including
how the agencies concerned respond to them. These reviews pointed to the
challenges faced by these bodies as well as the improvement of scientific means
to respond to disasters. Since disaster challenges are old and modern, the
question remains how to address and overcome these challenges, so that the
effects of disaster can be mitigated

One of the most important stages to face these challenges is the planning stage
to confront the disaster with all the complexity of this planning, which the
circumstances is surrounding the disasters, especially in the case of surprise
and unpredictability of the disaster, and in the case of lack of information
and conflict and the lack of time to confront. As well as in the next stage of
planning, which is the stage of confrontation when the disaster occurs and all
the challenges that this stage entails and the speed required in making
difficult decisions to confront and benefit from the material, human and
technical possibilities that may help in the requirements of a proper response
to the magnitude of the disaster. In addition, many of the challenges in the
final phase of restoring life were normal, as they were prior to the disaster.

 

Disaster’s Challenges

There are several challenges to
face a disaster, these challenges can be summarized as follows:

1.  Challenge in definition: This challenge is that there are
several definitions of the disaster, and a unified definition of the disaster
has not been fully agreed upon, even if there is agreement on many of the
components of the disaster, but all this does not indicate a consensus in the
definition of disaster.

2.  There is a difficulty in establishing general rules for
applying them to all forms of disasters. This is a result of different forms of
disasters. This difference may play a role in the local privacy of the nature
of the disaster.

3.  Lack of scientific application: Most theories are
theoretical but most of them have not been tested on the ground, so we need
field applications of these theories related to disaster management.

4.  Surprise and lack of time: Many disasters occur suddenly
without any introduction to their arrival, they are not expected, and this
surprise does not allow much time to face them, when the disaster may be
exacerbated quickly and does not allow a lot of time to address them
Circumstances may not be available or available, and this may be the result of
sudden disaster itself, so the decision-maker to face the disaster finds itself
in front of two challenges, the first time constraints and the second lack of
information.

 

 

 

Planning
the operational response to the disaster

There
is difficulty in planning the operational management of the disaster. This
difficulty is a lot of greetings that have been mentioned in advance, but the
difficulty is more evident in the lack of information and time constraints. But
the design of operational confrontation plans must include the following
elements:

1.  Provide services that may be needed.

2.  Develop a crisis management system and determine the need
for it.

3.  Secure an effective communications network.

4.  Set the methods of alert and warning and evacuation.

5.  Identification of all elements of the plan and the
participation of the competent authorities.

6.  Develop integrated training planning.

7.  Probability of scenarios – multiple scenarios.

8.   Identification of
material and technical potential.

9.  Visualize alternative scenarios using a method Mock
Drills and Simulation Brain Storming

10. The plan should be more broad, flexible and deep in order
to be re-established formulated according to circumstances.

 

Challenges
of modern technologies

One of
the most important challenges faced by those responsible for disaster
management is the use of appropriate modern technologies in coping processes.

The
expected challenges of a disaster can occur at any time, and a situation that
requires the use of modern disaster management techniques is needed, and the
need for advanced coping techniques and pre-disaster preparedness is urgently
needed.

These
techniques have proven to play an important role in saving lives, reducing
losses, and even reducing costs. Previous disaster management events have shown
that every dollar disbursed in the disaster preparedness phase will save 3 $ in
case of facing, they may have to pay three times in the confrontation phase if
they do not care about the goal in the preparation phase.

Modern
and non-traditional technologies that can be used for rescue and evacuation in
modern disasters are used as theoretical fiber. As well as the use of
satellites and also benefit from the use of robots to enter the scene of the
accident and work on rescue and evacuation This robot has become the place of
interest of many researchers and disappointment because the future in this area
is the robot, especially now that the next wars if needed The troops in these
forces will be mechanized.

The
Rescue and Evacuation Group in the World Trade Center towers has developed six
scenarios to intervene in the rescue and evacuation operations and to apply the
appropriate scenario to the incident, which was believed to be not coming out
of these six scenarios. However, after the incident, it turned out that all
these scenarios were not appropriate and were a surprise to the news, as what
happened and its results came out of the framework of all their visions and
what is expected.

 

 

 

Lessons
to be considered

1.  To improve the collection and development of a database
and access to it in a scientific and modern way when needed, which is relevant
to the site of the event, what was done and what resulted from the incident and
information about those trapped inside (as their number was not known exactly.

 

2.  The ability to identify the modern devices about the
location of the trapped and the survivors and the number of them, as well as
identify the precedence of what is possible to fall and collapse of the
building and the number of those closer to the rescue and survival, and the
information was scarce in this aspect.

 

 

3.  Access to alternative sources of energy in the event of
power outages and that these sources are of high technology, and have the
ability to develop long distances.

 

4.  Processing and assembling modern electronic equipment for
detecting the living inside indoor buildings and trapped inside as well as
technicians trained to use these devices and tools.

 

 

5.  Provide rescuers with clothing that includes equipment
for their protection and protection from any potential risk that such clothing
is lightweight and capable of protecting against any potential hazards and
minimizing the number of equipment. This is due to the use of one piece of
clothing, which carries a lot of tasks, lighting, drilling and others because
it is noted that the firefighters were overloaded with clothes and equipment
multiple and heavy load And impede the rapid and required movement to enter and
carry out the duty of rescue and evacuation.

 

6.  Activate the role of disaster medicine at the scene,
especially in the field of examination of the injured and the risk assessment
of each case and ambulance according to precedents in unconventional ways and
to do so as quickly as required in case of confusion that occur in such
incidents and there is a statement of the World Health Organization in disaster
medicine is to move The hospital should not be transferred to the hospital). As
is usual, the largest amount of health services should be provided to the
casualty at the scene, and not the other way around after the arrival of the
hospital. This would save many lives before reaching the hospital.

 

 

7.  – In the case of buildings in which there is severe
deterioration due to sabotage, as well as fear of the existence of some places,
which is feared to explode at any time or fear of high density of radioactive
materials in the same building, it is advisable to use technologies that are
run on the dimension, Camry is a video that works on the dimension and has the
ability to shoot and zoom for images from long distances. These cameras, which
are run from a distance, can monitor, inspect and photograph and sending
pictures from the surrounding atmosphere and has been used in the towers of the
World Trade Center has been dropped some of the fine cameras in distant places
and deep controlled from the dimension, and assisted by the identification of
many of the trapped and victims, The company can detect the ambient atmosphere
and send the patient to the observers on the dimension, thus helping to
identify the nature of the detonation or explosive materials.

Conclusion

After
the incredible disaster that happened in 11.9.2001 the expected scenarios for
manned disasters will never be the same. Everything nowadays can be possible
and done easily without noticing any pre-call for it. It is a must that we go
through deep studies for the expected and non-expected threats that might treat
our life, or even the next generation’s life. Urban communities have to have
disaster plans that can be cover such extreme scenarios and can be applied in
many critic locations such as an airport, or trade ports, public transportation
centers, or even residential communities.

Continuously,
communications shall be upgraded and backed up. Engineers need to consider the
problems of broken-down buildings and how to train the public to react with
such incidents.

Today, preparedness means “research, planning, education, relationships,
cooperation and coordination with all partners in Emergency Preparedness,
including other hospitals, nursing homes, home care health agencies, state and
county departments of health, Homeland Security, law enforcement, fire, EMS and
schools,” Muller said. Lessons of 9/11 Attacks Remembered by Emergency
Agencies.

Hopefully
the experience of the World Trade Center attack will lead to a disaster
response system that is capable of dealing with the many scenarios possible
today and in the future.

 

References

Demographia http://www.demographia.com/dm-nyc.htm

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January 2018

The World
Trade Center Attack: Lessons for disaster management
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC137379/

Accessed on 5th January 2018

Lessons of
9/11 Attacks Remembered by Emergency Agencies https://www.emsworld.com/news/12003143/lessons-of-9-11-attacks-remembered-by-emergency-agencies

Accessed
on 9th January 2018

 

Mark
Demas: 2007 (French Civil Defence) Training Course – International Civil
Defence Geneva.

Accessed on 11th January 2018

Wagnon
2007 (Lautenout- colonel: Swies Rescue Troops) Training Course –
International Civil Defence Geneva.

Accessed on 11th January 2018

 

Valeery
Babichev: (2007) Scientific and Production centere: Rescue Equipment –
Moscow: Training Course – International Civil Defence Geneva.

Accessed on 12th January 2018

 

Jhon Lowe
(2007) Special USAR England: Training Course – International Civil Defence
Geneva.

Accessed on 12th January
2018

 

 

Marcel
Duboulog: (2007) World Health Organization : Training Course –
International Civil Defence org Geneva.

9.  Accessed
on 14th January 2018