Paramount to the survival of
institutions or organizations is the motivation and job satisfaction of its
workforce (Baron and Greenberg, 2003:190; Werner, 2007:69). In chapter 3 the
main focus is on the particular factors which might establish the levels of
motivation and job satisfaction in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Motivational and Job Satisfaction among Teachers
There are several factors which play an
important role in the motivation and job satisfaction of employees at the place
of work. As explained previously in the study the constructs ‘motivation’ and
‘job satisfaction’ are independent and their meanings are mutually exclusive.
However, there are several researchers who think that there is a complementary
relationship between the two variables (Evans, 2001). In the analysis of roles
played by the various factors, this study will by and large adopt a
complimentary approach, which promote the view that motivated employees are
generally (but not necessarily) satisfied with their work setup, and satisfied workers
are generally (but not necessarily) motivated to do well.
The factors are categorized as
demographic, organizational and organizational practice factors, and are
discussed hereunder for the purposes of this study. The factors are general and
omnipresent, in the sense that they are related with educational and other
organizational environment although their main focus is on the high schools.
Those factors that are peculiar to
individual employees are known as demographic factors which include age,
gender, job tenure, occupational level, educational level, personality and
perceptions of work. These factors are discussed below.
There are varying degrees of motivation
and job satisfaction levels of employees at the workplace that indicated by
research findings of several studies. According to Schulze and Steyn (2003)
motivation levels of younger employees fresh out of training faculties, as well
as employees nearing retirement are significantly higher than those who are in-between.
According to studies in the United States and United Kingdom (Spector, 2003),
there are some possible reasons for this curved pattern that the new incumbents
to the organization are basically motivated to ‘make their mark’, obtain
permanency in the profession, and fulfill their personal aims and ambitions.
This is in custody with McClelland’s learned needs theory (Luthans, 1988) that
asserts that incumbents are driven by a need for power and affiliation, as well
as Maslow’s need for self-actualization (Spector, 2008). Being neonates to the
profession, their levels of motivation would be high. The levels of motivation,
but more so job satisfaction among the more senior employees, i.e. those with
high work tenure, are also high since they are deemed to be happier with the
prospect of retiring after serving the fraternity for a lengthy period of time.
Employees midstream in their careers are generally deemed to have lower levels
of motivation and job satisfaction in view of the fact that they may have been
overlooked for promotions, their home environments may yet be unsettled with
their own children still studying at various institutions, and they may be
expected to adapt to changing scenarios at the workplace, such as curricular
and other legislative changes.
Organizational structure of the school
In Pakistan the state controls crucial
structural forms such as school registration, teacher registration, teacher
remuneration and responsibility, age regulations for learners, learner-teacher
ratios, and curriculum at each level and certification at formal exit points (Christie,
1998). Schools are formal organizations characterized by formalized teaching
and learning, division of labor, administrative bureaucracy and forms of standardization
(Cooper in Christie, 1998). As formal organizations, schools place people in specific
relationships to each other, both within and outside their boundaries, for
example learners, teachers, principals, parents and inspector.
“Culture” is defined as “the collective
programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from
another” (Hofstede in Ng & Yim, 2009). So, culture is viewed as a
phenomenon at the group, institutional, or societal level, even though it has
strong significance for predicting individuals’ behaviors. There are some
special aspects in a school’s culture such as its rituals, customs, practices,
rewards and recognition ceremonies and its disciplinary codes of practice that
are generally steeped in its history.
Some schools have poisonous cultures,
i.e. there is enmity and conflict between teachers on an ongoing basis (Vail,
2005). This toxic culture is a result of personality conflicts, intolerance, jealousy,
professional competition and racism, in several examples. The prevalence of
such relationships need to be carefully approached by the principal and
diffused – only then would the climate be made conducive to teaching and
learning (Bloch, 2009; Evans, 2001).
According to Schulze and Steyn (2003),
school climate is either open or closed. An open climate is specified by
participatory decision making; teacher professionalism; teacher empowerment, open
communication; and a sensitive leadership style of the principal. Teacher empowerment
is important as teachers are happiest and perform at their best when they
perceive themselves to have some control over their work environment (Vail,
2005). Milner and Khoza (2008) agree with this point of view and put in that an
open school climate is based on respect, trust and honesty, with opportunities
for teachers, learners and school management teams to connect considerately and
usefully with one another. By contrast, tyrannical top-down headship tends to restrain
teacher motivation and self-esteem. Schools show less learner misbehavior,
staff disharmony, and teacher earnings that have participatory decision making.
Teachers feel valued and respected when managers consult with them and consider
their views (Vail, 2005).
One of the daunting challenges facing
institutions of learning such as schools is that of learner misdemeanor, which
manifests itself in several ways, inter
alia, bullying, non-compliance to instruction, criminal activities,
threats, intimidation and violence, drug addiction and sexual misconduct
(Kollapen, 2006). Learner ill discipline, in particular learner aggression,
learner violence and threats to cause harm to the person, create fear and
uncertainty in teachers and adversely affect the educational ethos of the
school (Steyn, 2002).
satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Commonly, job satisfaction is an
effective response of employee’s situation at work (E. C. Papanastasiou and M.
Zembylas, 2005). Job satisfaction is an approach, which is the result of balance,
and summary of several particular likes and dislikes accomplished in association
with the job. This approach manifests itself in the assessment of job and
employing organization. This evaluation may rest mostly upon one’s success or
failure in the attainment of individual objectives and upon the perceived
contributions of the job and employing organization to these ends (Mahmood,
Nudrat, & Asdaque, 2011). In terms of definitions, generally there is no
agreed upon description of teacher job satisfaction or of what constitutes
teacher satisfaction although there might be some international trends such as,
the perception that teachers are most satisfied by matters intrinsic to the
role of teaching: student attainment, helping students, positive interaction
with students and others, self growth and so on (Berg, 2002; Dinham &
Newsroom, (1986) defined job
satisfaction, as “It is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings with which
employees view their work.” Brayfield & Rothe (1951) refers job
satisfaction as the individual’s attitude (feeling) toward his work. According
to Hugh (1983), job satisfaction will be defined as “the amount of overall
positive affect (of feeling) that individuals have towards their jobs”.
Spector, (1956) defined job satisfaction as “how people feel about their jobs
and different aspects of their jobs.” Employers and staff both want a more
encouraging atmosphere because of common interest, like better performance and
job satisfaction. Employees feel that when they do something helpful that gives
a sense of individual significance, the climate is positive while employers
want better presentation. They often wish for challenging work that is essentially
satisfying. They want liability and the opportunity to succeed, to be listened
to, treated and appreciated as individuals. They desire that the organizations
should truly be concerned about their need and problem (Davis, 1985).
Job satisfaction refers to the
individual matching of personal needs to the perceived potential of the
occupation for satisfying those needs (Kuhlen, 1963) while Price (2001) defined
it in terms of the affective orientation that an employee has towards his or
her work (Price, 2001). Extensive research has been conducted to measure and predict
Job satisfaction (Okpara, 2004). However, recent focus is towards the dimension
of job satisfaction now (George et al., 2008). According to different
researches organizational commitment, which is the prime area of interest for
many researchers, can be influenced affirmatively by job satisfaction (Ho et
It has been noticed that there is a difference
between pay structures of the younger and experienced employees. Research has
shown that most young workers are satisfied with the salary they have, but
experienced workers are not paid according to their functions so the wage
structures require further attention (Khan et al., 2011). This disparity does
not bring good results for the organizations. Intensity of job satisfaction
depends on the discrepancy of expectations of person, what he or she wants and
what he or she gains (Ho et al., 2009; Porter and Lawer, 1973; Castle, Engberg
and Anderson, 2007). Job satisfaction is an extent to which employee feels
positively or negatively about different aspects of job e.g. job conditions,
timing, structure, compensation, tasks, and relationship with co-workers and
responsibilities (Omme et al, 2009; Spector, 1997; Williams, 2004). Employee’s satisfaction
results in pleasant environment in an organization (Khan et al., 2011). Pay is
thought to be a key factor behind job satisfaction besides promotion,
recognition, job involvement and commitment. Job satisfaction is a feeling of
an employee about his job (Kamal &Hanif, 2009).
The management should give priority to its human
resources who play a vital role to give a competitive edge to the organization
(Khan et al., 2011). Job attachment, dedication and willingness are the key
factors that provide satisfaction (Sargent &Hannum, 2005). Employees or
teachers may be considered as dissatisfied with their jobs if they remain
absent and friction to the job of teaching (Haiyan, 1995; Weiqi, 1998; Sargent
&Hannum, 2005). The teachers are more content with communities that are
less distant and having better economic and social possession (Sargent
&Hannum, 2005). The quality of management also contributes towards the job satisfaction.
The working situation at school gives the satisfaction of teachers. They are
happy with good pay, big schools where they have the chance of professional
growth, where there is not much workload and where they get the administration
support (Sargent &Hannum, 2005. No work is good or bad; it is the way the employee
perceives it (Tead, 1920). The job itself is neither fascinating nor uninteresting
but the relationship makes it fascinating or otherwise (Tead, 1920).
Reward and Recognition
In educational institutions a balance is determined
between the performance of the teachers and their commitment to the work, like
other organizations. Reward and recognition are the two beside many other
factors which can have an effect on the job satisfaction and motivation of
teachers. With regard to statistics, there is an important link between reward
and recognition and that between motivation and satisfaction (Ali & Ahmed, 2009).
It is explained that awarding the employee with financial benefit without any
prominent also loses its importance. When an employee get a financial reward
with extraordinary amusement and excitement, that experience becomes more marvelous
for receiver (Weinstein, 1997). There is a direct relation between types and
nature of rewards with the motivation and satisfaction of the workers. Changes
in rewards and recognition can bring a definite change in work motivation and
satisfaction (Ali & Ahmed, 2009).
Ali and Ahmed (2009) confirmed that rewards and
recognition have a strong effect on job motivation and satisfaction. Katous’s
(2008) findings also show that if more attention is given on workers reward and
recognition, motivation and job performance can be improved significantly. (Satisfaction,
motivation, knowledge, collaboration with partners and colleagues, dedications,
holding and participation may be in the order of the most important aspects of
human resource management results. Performance can be judged through a single
yard stick and that is behavioral dimensions of an employees. There are no
rules by which unusually good actions could be gauged, and it can be pleasant
behavior, helping colleagues or punctuality (Flynn, 1998; Ali & Ahmed,
2009). It can be said that recognition is an important factor that effect employee
motivation. Recognition is a public expression of appreciation given by a group
to individuals who undertake desired behaviors (Fisher, & Ackerman, 1998).
The recognition may include the monetary award but
these facets are not of any importance or significance (Fisher& Ackerman,
1998). Teachers are judged for their professional competence. In the teaching
profession, the position of teachers offers them recognition for their
capabilities and accomplishments (Sargent & Hannum, 2005). Recognition may
not work alone. Although the strength of recognition may give a boost to the employee
in society, however its affect are not measureable alone without paying
something (Fisher, & Ackerman, 1998). Inherent rewards and external rewards
are usually connected. However, if the pay of workers is not good, there cannot
be a direct relation between commendation of the workers and their willingness
to work. Therefore there is no value of intrinsic rewards like
acknowledgements, admirations and authorizations when there are no extrinsic
rewards (Hafiza et al., 2011).
In Pakistan, both male and female are working in the
teaching profession like other countries.In the whole world now the women’s
contribution in the manpower is increasing but still the gender differences are
also growing in regards to monetary and working environments (Okpara,
Research on teacher’s job satisfaction
Teachers are possibly the most essential group of
professionals for all nations’ future. So, it is worrying to find that a lot of
today’s teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs. Regarding to study of Beer
& Beer (1992) who investigated the depression among Los Angeles teachers by
applying depression scale the mean depression score of a sample of 75 teachers
was 15.6. The CES-D score equal to 1 6 or greater is considered significant.
According to Schonfeld, (1989) this level of
depression score associated with risk of depression. Teacher job satisfaction
has remained as a large number of studies in many countries. Many studies have
been conducted to recognize sources of teacher satisfaction and dissatisfaction
at elementary and secondary school level teachers from last two decades.
Teacher’s job satisfaction or dissatisfaction depends on many factors ranging
from where he teaches to the sense of self-fulfillment they may receive from
doing teaching. Generally, job satisfaction involves a description of those
factors that a teacher perceives to either promote positive feelings about job,
or negative feelings about job (Ghazi, S. R, 2012). Imposed and centralized
system accountability, lack of professional sovereignty, persistently
obligatory changes, regular media criticism, lack of resources, and average
salaries are major sources of low teacher satisfaction in many developed
countries around the world (Dinham, S. and Scott, C. 2002; van den Berg, 2002).
Everlasting factors such as Student achievement,
helping, student’s positive relationships with classmates and self growth have
been associated with teacher job satisfaction, whereas further factors such as
professed low status and pay, lack of professional independence and deprofessionalization
have been associated to teacher dissatisfaction, (Zembylas, M., &
Papanastasiou, E. ,2004).
Demographic factors and personal characteristics
also associated with the job satisfaction. Gender, age, qualification, years of
teaching experience, subject, location, , responsibility, and activity are the
such factors that influence on the teachers job satisfaction,(Aliakbari, 2013;
Bishay,1996; Shujie Liu , Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, 2012 ). Satisfaction and dissatisfaction
are also deeply correlated with performance of teachers. The satisfied teachers
are known to show higher level work performance in teaching profession (Mbah,
2012; Alimi Baba Gana, 2011).Whereas dissatisfaction reduced aptitude to meet
students’ needs, major incidences of psychosomatic disorders leading to
increase the trend of absenteeism, and high levels of claims for stress-related
disability (Farber, 1991; Troman, 2000). Significantly, teacher dissatisfaction
results to be a major motivation in teachers leaving the job in many countries
(Woods et al.1997).