Research on “transformational
leadership” (Bass et al., 1999, Tichy, 2002) helped to shift the focus of
research toward the staff of the firm (Gond and Mignonac, 2002). They
highlighted the fact that the leader is nothing without his collaborators
because it is his ability to influence and generate among them the will to
follow him and to excel for the good of their organization, which makes
possible better performances (Argyris, 2000).
Research has also exposed the link between performance
and the” transformational leadership” model:
“transformational and transactional leadership positively predicts a
wide variety of performance outcomes including individual, group and
organizational level variables” (Bass & Bass 2008, page 44).
Researchers in the field like Den Hartog and Belschak
argue that “transformational leaders” are expecting a lot in terms of
contribution, performance and involvement of their employees through the
creation and sharing a vision for a better future and intellectual stimulation
and encouragement for creativity.
The notion of “team” that occupies an important place
in modern organizations is nearly aligned with that style of leadership. Reich advocates
focusing more on teamwork than on leaders seeking their own interests. In 2004,
KK and Kumar defined the contemporary organizational structure as being focused
more on group of people collaborating together as a team rather than being
centered on the leader.
According to them, societies with “transformational
leaders” give a lot of consideration to people and pay more attention to interactions
between individuals, as they are the heart of organizations. This type of leadership
is dedicated to offering employees everything they need to enable them not only
to excel in their work but also to thrive at the professional level.
In 2009, Hackmann and Johnson considered
“transformational leaders” to be totally different from other leaders because
of their qualities, their talent and their skills to create and implement a “vision”
and stimulate “followers” to work together to achieve that “vision”. These
types of leaders are also “master communicators able to articulate and
define ideas and concepts that are escaped from others” (Hackman & Johnson,
2009, p. 111).