The nm. The particles of powder of granularity

The
unique surface characteristics of nanopowders deduce their application in
electrochemical and

chemical
coatings, pastes, and suspensions; as additives in polymeric, ceramic, and
industrial rubber goods and glues; as adsorbents and catalysts, in filters and
membranes. Nanodiamond powder of detonation synthesis are applied in
technologies of hard electrochemical compound coatings of diamond tools149. In
particular, a nanodiamond additive changes the structure of nickel coatings
with the formation of nickel dendrites radiating outward from dispersed
particles and increases the microhardness of coatings by a factor of 1.9 and
their wear resistance by 3–4 times. Such compounds

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coatings
significantly enhance the quality of galvanic tools with different types of
dimension and functions (grinding wheels, core drills, faceplates, etc.) and
harden the work surfaces of flying grippers for printing machines, sleeves of
internal-combustion engines, etc150.
Techniques have been advanced for metalizing static-synthesis diamond powders
by composite chemical coatings with nanodiamond additives and for metalizing
nanodiamond itself by nickel to produce diamond-carrying cells 0.35–1.8 µm in
size. The application of composites based on metallized nanodiamond to form
faceting disks for processing jewels at the Izumrud State Company increased the
wear resistance, elasticity, rollability, and cutting ability of the disks by a
factor of 1.5–1.8151,152.

         Studies about the catalytic and
adsorption properties of nanodiamond indicate that adsorption centres on the particle surface are
simultaneously catalytic centres. This
was shown that electrochemical treatment of the particle surface makes it
possible to saturate it with atomic oxygen, thereby significantly enhancing
catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide into dioxide27,153. Since
nanodiamonds have demonstrate to be promising catalysts of oxygen electrodes in
fuel cells, those studies were further developed. Techniques have been
developed for sintering nanopowders and for applying them as a structuring additives in the manufacturing of dense
polycrystals from static synthesis of diamonds. One of the most interesting
results is the technology of polycrystalline micropowders
whose porous particles have various nanostructures154. Such
powders are manufactured by crushing diamond nanopowder sinters produced under
static conditions in the region of stability of the diamond phase155. The
minimum pore size of powder particles, estimated from the characteristics of
nitrogen adsorption, is 1.2 nm. The particles of  powder of granularity 1/0 have pores size
range from 1.2 to 2.5 nm. As the granularity increases, the largest pore size
increases to ~10 nm. The important advantages of polycrystalline powders is
large specific surface area (~140 m2 g–1), which is close to that of the
initial nanopowder (~170 m2 g–1), and their high adsorption activity (above 250
J g–1)156. These
properties make it feasible to use polycrystalline powders as adsorbents and
catalysts; therefore, the search for their most efficient fields of application
is carried out in this direction. As for the polishing ability of powders, they
can be used for the processing of both hard and soft materials.

Through tuning chemical, optical, electric, and magnetic
properties of materials, nanotechnology offers medicine as a strong progressive
treatment for patients. For example, it may help in reducing serious adverse
effects of chemotherapy through the targeted delivery of therapeutics at the
malfunctioning site. Carbon nanomaterials are mainly attractive for biomedical
applications because carbon is the main constituent of all living organisms on
Earth, including the human body. Since the development of the era of nanotechnology, carbon-based
nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanodiamond
have been in the focus of researchers to develop the theranostic platforms157. Among
different carbon nanomaterials, nanodiamond
particles (ND) are excellent due to their biocompatibility and low toxicity, chemical
inertness of diamond core with highly tailorable and fully accessible surface,
exposing a number of functional groups that can be used to modify their affinity
to different environments, non-covalent or covalent attachment of drugs or
biomolecules, as well as incorporation into composites and hybrid materials for
biomedical applications158. Some of
these nanodiamonds bear fluorescent centres in their cores gives the opportunities for in
vitro and in vivo imaging. Others have a very small
size (5 nm or less indiameter) being potentially able to penetrate
the smallest pores in the body, for example, in the nuclear membrane (nucleolemma), or kidney filtration
system. With all these unique properties combined in one particle, nanodiamonds  outperform other nanoparticles that provide
some of these properties but not all. These advantages of nanodiamonds don not matched
by any other carbon or non-carbon nanomaterial are already important enough to provide
nanodiamonds as the superior nanomaterial for different application (Figure
6)159. And yet,
nanodiamonds offer more benefits: it can be relatively, easily and
inexpensively synthesized by detonation on a large industrial scale and is
already commercially available at affordable price. All these factors grant the
growing interest in using the hardest material (diamond) at
its nanoscale form to fight with some of the hardest problems
faced by human society160.