The that can distinguish one computer from another,

The end-to-end arguments are a set of design principles that characterize how the Internet has been designed. A general-purpose system is built and specific applications are then built using this system, the end-to-end arguments suggest that specific application-level functions usually cannot, and preferably should not, be built into the lower levels of the system—the core of the network. The core of the network provides a very general data transfer service, which is used by all the different applications running over it. Operation in an untrustworthy world, more demanding applications, ISP service differentiation, the rise of third-party involvement, less sophisticated users all this come against the argument of the end-to-end only systems Another important category of interaction occurs when two (or more) end-nodes want to communicate with each other, but do not totally trust each other. Desire for anonymity might arise, from anonymous political speech and whistle blowers to reserving one’s privacy while looking at a website, for example in the United States, the privilege of anonymous public political speech is a protected right. A growing perception that the hardware and software available to consumers today behave as a sort of double agent, releasing information, in support of marketing goals such as building profiles of individual consumers. Processors may contain unique identifiers that can distinguish one computer from another, and various programs such as browsers could be modified to include that identifier in messages going out over the Internet, allowing those messages to be correlated. Governments assert their right to wiretap certain communications within their jurisdiction, take for themselves the right to control the access of certain parties to certain material, preventing minors from obtaining pornography to preventing citizens from circulating material considered seditious. The example of asymmetric expectations among the end-nodes reaches its extreme when one party does not want to interact at all, and the other party wishes to force some involvement on it. This network equivalent of screaming at someone takes many forms, ranging from application-level flooding with unwanted material (e.g., e-mail spam). But much of what happens on the Internet, is multiparty, what makes multiway applications more complex to design, multiple end-points may not function equally. In general, in a two-party interaction, if one end seems to be failing or malicious, the first line of defense is to cease the communication. The core of the network the part of the Internet implemented in the routers themselves, which provide the basic data-forwarding service, another version applies to the design of applications. Proposals are as likely to be hostile by adding mechanisms that keep things from happening, blocking certain applications, the approach is adopted using firewalls, traffic filter, network address translation elements anc etc. Imposing a control element, packets that flows from a source to a destination might take multiple paths across the Internet cause routing options are dynamically computed, which is the topological feature that provides a place for an organization to install a firewall. Revealing or hiding the content, end-to-end arguments states that the sender and receiver are free to to use a private format, encrypt their communications, to keep them private. One way to reveal some information about the content of a message without revealing the content itself is to label the message. Application requirements are becoming more complex, which sometimes leads away from a simple end-to-end design, anonymizing message forwarders, helpful content filtering (filtering spam), content caches (cdn, proxy). Context includes the legal and social structure of the economy, the growing motivations for trustworthiness, and the fact that technology, law, social norms, and markets combine to achieve a balance of power among parties. Many forces are pushing to change the Internet as consequences of increased complexity, increased structure in the design of the Internet, and a loss of control by the user. This article have illustrated that users who do not totally trust each other still desire to communicate. The paper was good from a socio-technical aspect more there are many hidden or revealed through them and has all the knowledge of the whole internet design as it is today filled in this glorious paper, was a very good read, very insight the very truth how the internet has become today.