This public sector colleges are dissatisfied with their

This
paper is about measuring job satisfaction of teachers of colleges in TamilNadu.
The importance of this paper can be described as teachers are the backbone of
any country. If teachers are fully satisfied with their jobs they would
sincerely and passionately teach their students who would then serve the
country and the whole world as well. But if teachers are not satisfied with
their jobs they can intentionally or unintentionally be a source of loss for
the nation because they may not put their fullest attention to this delicate
job. According to Briones, Elena, Tabernero, Carmen, Arenas and Alicia (2010)
students are one of the important assets of any society. Well-being of society
depends upon its students because these are the people who will take the
responsibility of the success of the society in future and in achieving this
goal teachers’ role is extremely important. Teachers are the source of guidance
in all the crucial steps in academic life of the students. People are
interested to work in institutions where they feel satisfied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

II. Literature Review

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Job
Satisfaction It has been generally noticed that the teachers in private
sector colleges are not satisfied with their jobs due to the issue of job
security and low salary and some other reasons. This paper will attempt to
explore whether these general statements are true or not. And if teachers of
private or even public sector colleges are dissatisfied with their jobs, what
are the causes that contribute to this job dissatisfaction among teachers? Once
these reasons are identified, proper actions may be taken by these colleges to
improve the job satisfaction of teachers. As there is a positive correlation
between education level of the people of a country and its economic growth, so
it is very important that teachers should be utmost satisfied with their jobs
so that they can deliver their best.

Idrees Ali Habib Ahmad, Khursheed Ahmad and
Shah (2010) defined job satisfaction as how much happy an individual is
with his/her job. According to Locke (1976) job satisfaction could be a
pleasurable emotional state that results from one’s job experiences.

Abiodun, M. Gesinde andGbadebo, O. Adejumo
(2012) described “satisfaction” as a term commonly used to describe an
individual’s specific condition in which he or she finds himself/ herself at a
particular time Satisfaction can be achieved when a person performs what he/she
likes to do in a particular organization (Abiodun, et. al, 2012). From a
customer point of view Lornah C. NakeraSirima and Moses WesangulaPoipoi (2010)
state that when customer satisfaction increases profits of the company also
increase.

Previous
research has suggested that employees are the greatest assets of the
organization and if customers are satisfied then employees should also be made
satisfied with their jobs (Poipoi et al 2010).

Habib Ahmad, et al, (2010) emphasized
that organizational behaviour puts so much weight on job satisfaction that is
why this is studied at the most. Affect theory, Dispositional theory,
Motivation-Hygiene theory and Job characteristics model are some of the
theories that are found in the literature of job satisfaction. Creation,
innovation and coming up with breakthroughs is closely linked to job
satisfaction of employees that helps institutions to rise and change according
to market requirements (Shun-Hsing, Ching-Chow Yang, Jiun-Yan Shiau and Hui-Hua
Wang 2006). So job satisfaction is an important variable that must be given
high importance in an organizational set up. There have been several studies
into job satisfaction which investigate the impact of demographic
characteristics such as age, gender, tenure, cadre and education but the
evidence tends to be mixed, with positive and negative relationships sometimes
identified for the interactions between the same variables.

 

 

 

Salary:

.
Jose Miguel Tricas Moreno, (2010) also observed that personality and
temperament both contributed to tIf organizations want to retain competitive
employees, they must be able to provide them good working conditions,
competitive salaries, employment security and autonomy (Akram, 2012). Akram,
(2012) further concludes that financial aspects especially salary is the most important
among above variables because each employee needs a livelihood to support his/
her family. Kabir and Parvin (2011) found that there are many variables that
can affect job satisfaction of a person including salary and fringe benefits,
just system of promotion, working environment quality, leadership, the work
tasks and socializing. Andrew Clark et al (1996) have observed highly
significant U-shaped relationship between pay satisfaction and job tasks
satisfaction for job satisfaction. According to Muhammad Rafiq , (2012) for
high performance and organizational growth, rewards must be provided to
employees. They further examined the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
on employee job satisfaction and concluded that extrinsic rewards significantly
affect the job satisfaction level of employees in call centers.

 Using Herzberg’s hygiene factors and
motivators Waheed and Tan Teck-Hong, (2011) found that hygiene factors (working
environment, recognition) significantly affect the job satisfaction level of
sales force. They also discovered the relationship between salary and job
satisfaction including a mediating variable love for money and identified that
the employees who give more importance to money if they receive a pay increase
they would be more satisfied with their job.Kabir et al (2011) evaluated job
satisfaction of employees in the pharmaceutical sector of Bangladesh by taking
into account the effect of type of pharmaceutical, experience, age, and
attitudes of gender on job satisfaction. The results of study proved that
relations with peers, work efficiency, supervision and salary significantly
affect the level of job satisfaction of employees.

                                                      

Stress:

Shun-Hsing,
et al (2006) observed that university teachers find themselves in a profession
that is highly stressful. Medium level of job satisfaction was observed byJose
Miguel Tricas Moreno, (2010) during a study. This medium level of stress was
due to the fact that quality of the working environment was being consistently
improved. Jose Miguel Tricas Moreno, (2010) also observed that personality and
temperament both contributed to the burnout and increasing stress of the
employees. Azman Ismail, (2009) found that physiological stress has significant
correlation that occupational stress does predict the level

Of job
satisfaction. with job satisfaction but psychological stress has no correlation
with job stress. Azman Ismail, (2009) confirmed

Talib, (2009)
conducted a research on Malaysian male Navy officers and found that
occupational stress was significantly correlated with overall job satisfaction
level of officers.

The
relationship between age, stress and job satisfaction was conducted by K.
Chandraiah S.C. Agrawal, (2003)and it was concluded that young people faced
more stress and less job satisfaction as compared to senior level employees
between at the ages of 36 to 55 years.Javeed, (2012) identified that generally
whole of the selected sample was facing job stress due to the factors such as
extra workloads, pressure by employers and supervisors, insufficient
communication, no recognition, unjust appraisal system, poor working conditions
and not up to the mark salaries and other rewards. Javeed, (2012) further
indicated that job stress due to these factors leads to counterproductive work
behaviours and a strong correlation exists between stress and counterproductive
work behaviours by employees. Regarding a specific job context Warn, (2002)
conducted a research on naval officer trainees. This research showed that a
general model of stress was not helpful to understand job stress and job
satisfaction of employees in a specific context. Warn, (2002) recommended that
other variables of stress should also be identified to assess the stress levels
of employees. Anum Khan (2013) conducted a study to assess the stress levels of
operational staff of Islamic Banks. They included age, gender, organizational
climate and occupational stress as variables to determine the level of job
satisfaction of employees of these banks. Anum Khan et al, (2013) concluded that
job satisfaction was significantly affected by the organizational climate and
occupational stress. Age having no impact on job satisfaction of employees but
regarding gender maleswere more satisfied than females. A study conducted by EleniJelastopulu,
(2013) on nursing staff proved that work stress and job satisfaction are
inversely related. Other variables included in the study were doctors’ and
supervisors’ attention, self-respect and social respect. EleniJelastopulu,
(2013) suggested that a conducive working environment needs to be there for
nursing staff so that they can perform their duties without stress. Research
study of Laura McCann, (2009) showed that both community and hospital
pharmacists faced workloads, less human resources and stoppage in working as
the most stressful aspects of the job. Along with pharmacists she also found
quick changes in contracts and organizational settings as factors contributing
to stress of pharmacists. Relationship between job stress and job satisfaction
has been found byD.V.S(2012)and they concluded that a significant relationship
exists between these two variables. They included in job stress dimensions job
stress causes, job stress symptoms, job stress strategies and how to manage job
stress. Research has also found that almost one third teachers think that
teaching is highly stressful despite the fact that teachers like the teaching
profession (Rune Høigaard Rune Giske& Kari Sundsli 2011). Despite the
stress factor 60-70 % of the teachers feel that teaching provides rewards and
satisfies (Rune Høigaard Rune Giskeet al 2011). Student behavior also seriously
disturbed new teachers work (Rune Høigaard Rune Giske et al 2011). It has been
observed recently that for quality of education politicians, parents, and community
are pressurizing teachers handsomely.

SALARY

TEACHER JOB
SATISFACTION

STRESS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Hypothesis:

Ho: Salary and stress do not
significantly affect job satisfaction of teachers in colleges.

H1: Salary and stress significantly
affect job satisfaction of teachers in colleges.

 

III. Methodology :

             Dependent
variable for this research paper is job satisfaction. On the other hand
independent variables are salary and work-related stress. The objective of this
research paper is to determine which factors affect job satisfaction of
teachers more or less in a college setting in Pakistan.To get the data on job
satisfaction 100 questionnaires were sent to different teachers in different
public and private colleges of Sub-Division (Daska) of District Sialkot. 87
questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 87 %. 5-Likert Scale was
used in the questionnaire for independent and dependent variables. For
independent variables (1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Uncertain, 4=Agree,
5=Strongly Agree).For dependent variable Likert Scale was (1=Highly
dissatisfied, 2=Dissatisfied, 3=Somewhat satisfied, 4=Satisfied, 5=Highly
satisfied). Survey is divided into two sections. Part one is demographic
variables and part two independent and dependent variables. The survey includes
all the independent and dependent variables as mentioned above. The
questionnaire was adopted from Support Providing Employees Association of
Kentucky (SPEAK), USA. Cron Bach’s Alpha of the individual items in the
questionnaire was 0.691.The data were analyzed through SPSS v.16.

 

 

Sample characteristics:

Names of the Colleges in
which survey was distributed:

??Government Degree College
for Men, Vellore, Tamil Nadu.

??Government Degree College
for Women, Vellore, Tamil Nadu.

??Superior College Vellore,
Tamil Nadu.

??Nimble
Institute of Modern Sciences, Vellore, Tamil Nadu.

The following
tables show the distribution of respondents’ gender, age, discipline,
experience, public or private and salary.

Gender of the Person:

 

FREQUENCY

PERCENT

VALID
PERCENT

CUMULATIVE
PERCENT

MALE

32

36.8

36.8

36.8

FEMALE

55

63.2

63.2

100

TOTAL

87

100

100

 

 

The above table shows
that there are 37% male teachers and 63% female teachers.

Age of the Person:

 

FREQUENCY

PERCENT

VALID
PERCENT

CUMULATIVE
PERCENT

18-29

49

56.3

56.3

56.3

30-29

30

34.5

34.5

90.8

40-54

8

9.2

9.2

100

TOTAL

87

100

100

 

 

The above table shows the
ages of respondents. Most of them were in the group of 18-29 and only 9%
teachers were in the group of 40-54.