communication is a process of transferring data/information between two or more
devices which are not directly connected by any sort of any guided media. Wireless
communication or mobile communication has been remain one of the hottest area
that developing at booming speed. Today the fast changing world has its own
requirements of communication with fast speed.
last two decades wireless network and mobile network have made huge growth.
Both mobile communication and mobile phone are significant technology and
common tools of communication respectively.
In this paper an attempt has been made to study wireless cellular
technologies which are First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third
Generation (3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G). It also
covers evolution of the mobile generation by comparing standards, capacity,
bandwidth, primary services and feature provided by E-generation.
A cellular network also known as mobile network
is a radio network distributed over earth areas called cells. 1 Cell site are
base station is a fixed location transceiver which serve each cell. In cellular
network each and every cell use a different set of frequencies from other
neighboring cell in order to avoid interference. 2
In this paper each and every cellular mobile
technologies namely First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation
(3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) will be discussed while
keeping different parameters in mind like history, technology use, bandwidth,
switching techniques, service types etc.
Key word —cellular Network, First Generation
(1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and
Fifth Generation (5G), AMPS, GSM, GPRS.
In the past few years an enormous and exceptional growth has been made
experienced in the wireless industry. In 1980s the concept of First Generation
(1G) mobile system was put forward which were completely analog system. They
were also known as Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT). To overcome some limitation
of 1G a digital system came in 1990s called Second Generation (2G). First Generation
(1G) was mostly used for voice communication while Second Generation (2G) has
the capacity to support Short Message Services (SMS) and Multimedia Services
(MMS). Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Code Division Multiple
Access 2000 (CDMA)-2000 were primary Second Generation (2G) technologies. In
order to eliminate short coming of Second Generation(2G) an improvement Third
Generation (3G) came in the market then with further functionalities Fourth
Generation (4G) came in the field of wireless communication network and replace
the Third Generation (3G) system. The significant feature of Fourth Generation
(4G) infrastructure are accessing information anywhere, anytime with a seamless
connection to avoid range of information and services and receiving large
volume of information, data, pictures, videos and so on.3
The wireless era was started
by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In
1984, Maxwell presented the Maxwell’s
equations by combining the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere and Gauss 6. He
predicted the propagation of electromagnet waves in free space at the speed of
light. His theory was accepted 20 years
Later, after Hertz validated
electromagnetic wave (wireless) propagation. Hertz demonstrated RF generation,
propagation and reception in the laboratory. His work then continue by
Guglielmo Marconi after 2 decades. He then acquire a method for transmitting and
receiving information. Marconi started to commercialize the use of
electromagnet wave propagation for wireless telegraphs and allowed the transfer
of information from one continent to another without physical connection 6.
Since the cellular mobile phone system was introduced in the early 1980’s, the wireless industry has
gone several generations of revolutionary changes.
By the 2010, there were over
five times more mobile subscribers than obsolete telephone lines. Mobile
interaction models reformate the method in which people communicate. At
present, emergence of wireless network technologies is about to attain its
fourth generation. The wireless access generation (G) formerly describes a step
ahead in the isolated nature of network services. Looking back, these
technologies have implied variable emergence routes hoped at magnificent result
related to efficiency in the environment of mobile networks. New cellular
generation has been evolved in every 10 years -starting from 1981. Both the
users and mobile operators recognized the importance of cellular networks with
highly efficient designs. It resulted into optimization based services taking a
sharp vision. The fig. 2 and following section demonstrates the evolution of
generations- 1G to 5G.
First Generation (1G):
First Generation (1G) was
the first generation for the wireless communication which was based on analog signalling.
Analog Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was the analog system implemented in the
North America.4 The analog system implanted in Europe and the rest of the
world were identified as a variation of Total Access Communication System
(TACS). The analog system were based on circuit switching technology and were
used for voice communication. First Generation was based on Advance Mobile
Phone System (AMPS). The AMPS use Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDMA) with a
channel capacity of 30KH, and frequency band of 824 to 894MHz.
The limitation of First
generation (1G) were
Ø Roaming was not possible during communication.
Ø It was not possible to use frequency spectrum efficiently.
Ø No privacy.
Ø No encryption
Ø Sound quality was poor.
Ø Transfer speed was 9.5Kbps.
Ø Use analog Signals.
Second Generation (2G):
The Second Generation (2G) of cellular
technology based on Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and it was
emerged in late 1980s. Second Generation uses digital signal for voice
transmission. It provides a facility of Short Message services (SMS) and Multi
Media Services (MMS). The data rate offered by Second Generation (2G) was 384
Kbps up to 2Mbps. During Second Generation (2G) huge increase in subscriber and
value added services was observed. It provides a good voice quality but limited
data services. The other services offered by Second Generation (2G) were faxes,
text and voice mail.it also use General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Bandwidth
of Second Generation (2G) is 30 to 100 kilohertz.
Main features of Second
Generation (2G) are
Ø Data speed up to 64Kbps
Ø Use digital signals
Ø Provides facility of Short Message Services (SMS)
and Multi Media Services (MMS), Picture Messages.
Ø Provides better sound quality
2.5 Generation (2.5):
The 2.5 Generation use the General System for Radio Communication (GSM)
technology in better manner provide better services which led to development of
advanced Technology between 2g and 3g
Ø Provides phone calls
Ø Send/receive e-mail messages
Ø Web browsing
Ø Speed : 64-144 kbps
Ø Camera phones
Ø Take a time of 6-9 minutes to download a 3 minutes
Third Generation (3G):
Third Generation (3G) mobile
technology is based on wide band wireless network and fulfilling the
International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT)-2000 specification 5. The
key aim of the introduction of this technology was to offer high speed data
communication to the users. It also offers data services, access to Television
and Global roaming.
The main feature of Third
Generation (3G) are
Ø Speed 2Mbps typically known as smart phones.
Ø To accommodate web based application audio and
Ø It offers high Bandwidth and fast transfer rate.
Ø Communication was faster.
Ø Large e-mail message can be send and received.
Ø Provides more security.
Ø Video conferencing was possible.
Ø Television steaming / mobile TV and phones calls
Ø It take almost 1.5 minute to download a 3 minute MP3
Ø It has both the circuit and packet switch
Ø Frequency band 15-25 Gigahertz.
Ø Better security.
Fourth Generation (4G):
Fourth Generation (4G) is a
conceptual framework provide high speed wireless network that transmit Multi
Media Data. Fourth Generation (4G) can support 100 Mbps peak rates in in full
mobility wide area coverage and 1 Gbps in low mobility local coverage. Fourth
generation (4G) system does not support traditional circuit switch telephony
services but all Internet Protocol (IP) based system.it become extremely easy
to send huge amount of data from PC to wireless device. The Fourth Generation
(4G) describe as MAGIC which means. 7
Ø M Mobile Multi Media
Ø A Anytime
Ø G Global
Ø I Integrated
Ø C Customize
Followings are main feature
of Fourth Generation (4G)
Ø The data bandwidth is almost 200 Mbps
Ø More Flexible bandwidth
Ø Low cost then Third Generation (3G), Second
Generation (2G) and First Generation (1G).
Ø Frequency bandwidth of 2 to 8 Gigahertz
Ø Provide high quality of services
Ø Provides High Definition (HD) videos access to the
Ø Provides virtual navigation
Ø It can support Packet switching.
Fifth Generation (5G)
Fifth Generation (5G) is an upcoming technology. It is expected that it
will come approximately 2020.speed of Fifth Generation (5G) will beyond that
the current Fourth Generation (4G) offered. The main aim of 5G will be on
World-Wireless World Wide Web (WWWW). It is a complete wireless communication
with no limitations.
The main features of 5G are:
Ø It is highly
supportable to WWWW (wireless World Wide Web)
Ø High speed,
large broadcasting of data in Gbps.
newspapers, watch TV programs with the clarity(HD Clarity)
Ø Faster data
transmission that of the previous generation
Ø Large phone
memory, dialing speed, clarity in audio/video
Ø Support interactive multimedia, voice, streaming
video, internet and other
effective and attractive
Ø The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology
touching the peak
Ø The 5G technology also support virtual private
Ø The 5G terminals will have software defined radios
and modulation schemes as well as new error control.
Ø Schemes that can be downloaded from the Internet.
Comparative study on First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third
Generation (3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) Networks.
date of First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3G),
Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) Networks are 1970/1984,
1980/1999, 1990/2002, 2002/2010, 2010/2015 respectively.
data bandwidth First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation
(3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) are 2Kbps, 14-16Kbps,
2Mbps, 2000Mbps-1Gbps and 1Gbps and higher then 1Gbps respectively.
technology used in First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third
Generation (3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) are Analog
Cellular Technology, Digital Cellular Technology, Broad Bandwidth CDMA, IP
Technology, Unified IP and seamless combination of broadband, LAN/WAN/PAN and
WLAN, Unified IP and seamless combination of broadband, LAN/WAN/PAN and WLAN
generation (1G) provide Mobile Technology (voice), 2G Provides digital voice,
SMS and MMS, 3G provides Integrated Higher Quality audio, video and data.9 4G
provides Dynamic Information Access, Wearable devices and 5G provides Dynamic
Information Access, Wearable devices with IA capabilities.
used in Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3G), Fourth
Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) are FDMA,TDMA, CDMA, CDMA, CDMA.
core network of Generation (1G) and Second Generation (2G) are PSTN, Third
Generation (3G) is packet Network, Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation
(5G) is Internet.
In Generation (1G) and Second Generation (2G)
circuit switching is used, In Third Generation (3G) Packet except service for
air interface, in Fourth Generation (4G) and Fifth Generation (5G) all packets
standard of 1G is AMPS, standard of 2G are TDMA, CDMA and GSM. Standard of 3G
are WCDMA and CDMA-2000. And both in 4G and 5G signal unified standard are
In the last few years
a tremendous growth of wireless generation has been observed. There is ever
increasing demand of cellular network which motivate the researcher and
industrialist to come up with 4G mobile communication and further more 5th
generation technology. The study of history of mobile communication indicates
that many attempts have been done to reduce the number of technology to a
single global standard. The First Generation (1G) has fulfil the basic voice
communication using analog system while the Second Generation (2G) digital
technique have been introduced. The introduction of Third Generation (3G) open
the gates for truly mobile broadband. The Fourth Generation (4G) provides
better security, quality of services and video links. In this research paper we
have compared the five wireless mobile technologies namely First Generation
(1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3G), Fourth Generation (4G) and
Fifth Generation (5G) and concluded that it is the need of the hour for
development different protocol and generation for better connectivity and
conjunction less services. Fifth Generation (5G) technology is going to be a
new mobile revolution in mobile market. In 5G new techniques and technology
will be used.